Progress in wheat genetics and genomics is almost breath-taking, with high quality genome resources becoming available for the wheat community. Genetics and genomics tools are being integrated in wheat improvement programs. Determining gene functions, and mining allelic variation is now feasible with high precision. Informative and dense genotyping platforms that allow insights into genome diversity, evolution and modelling even highly quantitative traits, making genomics assisted breeding a realistic tool. Still challenges in maintaining diversity, assembling optimal cultivars, bringing improved cultivars to less developed regions, sharing germplasm and knowledge need to be discussed and improved.